Endocrine disruptors: substances that affect hormonal health

Endocrine disruptor is understood as any chemical substance external to the organism that possesses hormonal activity and that, once introduced into the organism, simulates, interferes or blocks the production, metabolism or action of the body’s own hormones. This can cause adverse effects on the health of the intact organism or its offspring. That is, having the ability to act as hormonal messengers, generate significant changes in the body, which include: sterility, loss of reproductive capacity, death, deformations in the reproductive organs, decreased immune system responses and tumors.

The term was coined in the 1990s mainly to define a diverse and heterogeneous set of exogenous chemical compounds. In fact, there are many products that contain substances that act as endocrine disruptors, both in personal or environmental cleaning products, pesticides, construction components, packaging, plastics, among others . But these substances can also be found in foods or in their containers.

They are related to an increased risk of obesity, diabetes, nonalcoholic fatty liver, reproductive problems, disorders in neurodevelopment, asthma and, very important now because of its high incidence, also related to an increased risk of cancer, especially in reproductive organs and in the breasts . Some of these substances can produce epigenetic changes, that is, modifications in the expression of the genes that can be transmitted to the descendants, giving rise to adverse effects in children or grandchildren of exposed individuals.

The effects of endocrine disruptors

Knowing a little more about endocrine disruptors, it is necessary to know some of their characteristics roughly:

  • They can act at very low exposure doses.
  • The moment of the exhibition plays a very important role in its consequent effects, being pregnancy, childhood and adolescence the stages of special vulnerability.
  • The dose of exposure does not correlate with the magnitude of the effect.
  • They have a cocktail effect, that is, different disruptors can act together, causing potential effects.
  • The effects are not always immediate, but can sometimes appear after a period of latency, many years after exposure.
  • They can damage the genetic expression and transmit to the descendants the damaged genes, giving rise to adverse effects in children or grandchildren of exposed individuals.

Endocrine disruptors and their relationship with food

Surely you’ve heard of bisphenol A or BPA, right?Well, that is one of the substances classified as endocrine disruptors and is very related to food.Apart from bisphenol A, there are also other more common ones that will surely sound to you, such as parabens, phthalates, dioxins, furans, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), etc.

How do these substances get into the food? 

Well, in the case of BPA and phthalates, are substances used in the manufacture of plastic materials in contact with food (tableware, bottles, containers, bottles, etc.), and can pass through direct contact with food. In the case of parabens, their risk is that they are used as food preservatives against the appearance of molds, so they also come into direct contact with the food. Dioxins are also used to create plastics for food use and, also, to make pesticides, so their route of exposure with food has a wider range.

How to prevent our hormones from being affected by endocrine disruptors?

Therefore, the main measure that we can adopt is to prevent these substances from coming into contact with the food that we are going to eat, but how do we do it? Here are some tips or tips :

  • Change tuppers, bottles and plastic utensils for those that are made of wood or glass.
  • Never heat the plastic containers in the microwave, since the heat can favor the transfer of these substances to the food even more.
  • Avoid buying food with plastic containers. In the case of fruit and vegetables we must remember that a protective packaging is not necessary when we buy it since they carry their natural packaging, the skin.
  • Wash food thoroughly, especially fruit and vegetables before consumption, if possible, disinfect with a few drops of bleach.
  • Reduce consumption of canned products since the can container is usually coated with a thin plastic layer inside that releases BPA.
  • Avoid giving your child plastic containers and utensils such as forks, glasses or plates, opting for steel or ceramic as an alternative material.
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Bibliographic references

  • Andrade-Ribeiro ALFA, Pacheco-Ferreira A., Nóbrega da Cunha CL and Mendes-Kling, A. (2006) Endocrine disruptors: potential problem for public health and the environment. Biomedical journal, 17 : 146-150.
  • Arvelo F., Sojo F. and Cotte, C. (2016).Pollution, endocrine disruptors and cancer.Clinical research, 57 (1): 77-92.
  • Fernández MF (2015) Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and long-term effects. Environmental health magazine, 15 (special congress): 65-85.
  • Fortoul Van der Goes, TI (2017) What is happening? Journal of the Faculty of Medicine of the UNAM, 60 (4): 1-5.
  • González AR and Alfaro Velásquez JM (2005) New endocrine disruptors: their importance in the pediatric population. Iatreia, 18 (4): 446-456.
  • Mendiola J., Fernández MF, Nadal A., Olea N., Tena-Sempere M. and Torres-Cantero, AM (2014) Endocrine disruptors and metabolic and reproductive disorders: future perspectives. Environmental Health Magazine, 14 (1): 1-7.
  • Rivas A., Granada A., Jiménez M., Olea F. and Olea N. (2004) Human exposure to endocrine disruptors. ECOSISTEMAS-Scientific and technical journal of ecology and environment, 13 (3): 7-12.

8 food tips that will improve your defenses

Food and lifestyle directly influence our immune system and therefore, in the ease or not of falling into recurrent respiratory tract infections. Our immunity and the ability to defend ourselvesagainst the external aggressions that cause this type of infections and mucus will depend not only on our genetics, but also on other factors such as allergies, the environment, the level of stress, toxic habits such as smoking. or consumption of alcohol and food. But what is it in our power to change at the food level? I summarize it in 8 tips on “food and defenses”:

  1. What we should not eat 

    We must mainly avoid ultra processed and processed foods , since they are usually rich in salt, sugar and low quality fats. In addition, these foods are usually low in fiber, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamins and minerals (such as sweets, soft drinks, pastries, sausages or some precooked) and favor a pro-inflammatory diet.

  2. Avoid a proinflammatory diet. 

    A proinflammatory diet is one that promotes inflammation by promoting the risk of disease, such as soft drinks, pastries, sausages and other ultra-processed foods rich in sugar, salt and low-quality fats.
    In addition, there are other factors such as smoking, alcoholism, sedentary lifestyle, stress or poor sleep hygiene, which also act negatively on the health and immunity of people.
    On the contrary, a diet rich in antioxidants, vitamins and minerals helps to improve our immune system.

  3. Power foods that improve your immunity. 

    A healthy and balanced diet will help us to strengthen our defenses. If we are omnivores (that is, if we consume products of animal and vegetable origin) we must ensure that 70% of the foods are of vegetable origin ; such as vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, whole grains and olive oil and the remaining 30% consisting of foods of animal origin, such as eggs, fish, dairy or low-fat meats.
    In the case of babies, it is important to encourage breastfeeding as it has been shown to help in the maturation of the baby’s immune system, preventing asthma, bronchiolitis due to respiratory viruses, otitis and gastroenteritis, among other infections.

  4. Do not forget the hydration. 

    A good hydration is very important to avoid the dryness that can be in the skin and mucous membranes due to the irritation of the cold and to improve the symptomatology.
    Infusions of ginger with lemon can be offered (ginger has been shown to improve some respiratory conditions such as influenza and aphonia) chamomile, green tea, thyme or rosemary, which are rich in antioxidants.
    Another way to provide liquid, vitamins and minerals is through homemade liquefied natural fruit and vegetables such as carrots, pumpkin, which can also be used in soups or creams with onion. These are interesting in periods of inappetence, since unlike juices, do not discard solid waste, so they are very rich in vitamins, minerals, anti-oxidants, and fiber very necessary for the defenses of our body.

  5. The vitamins, keys in the immune system. 

    Vitamins such as A , E, folic acid, B6, C, and B12 , the latter present in foods of animal origin, are essential to enjoy good immunity.
    Only in the case of deficit of some type of vitamin in our body, its supplementation can be effective to maintain a normal immune state.

  6. Enter probiotic foods. 

    Probiotic foods, such as fermented milk products (for example yogurt) help to improve our immunity, since they contain beneficial living microorganisms for our flora , improving our intestinal health and immunity.

  7. In the face of lack of appetite, prioritize the most nutritious foods. 

    Legumes, nuts and seeds are a good alternative, due to their nutritional density.That is, they provide us with a good variety of nutrients: fiber, vitamins and minerals, in little volume.
    For example, a nutritious snack for a person with little appetite could be a toast of hummus (shredded chickpeas) with sesame. You can also add nuts in children older than three years or, if they are smaller, in the form of cream or milled or milkshakes of walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, etc.
    In addition, nuts are foods rich in omega-3 that are precursors of anti-inflammatory substances that participate in the defenses of our body. In the same way as extra virgin olive oil, which also has anti-inflammatory properties and is very rich in vitamin E (potent antioxidant). This can be used in small quantities to enrich the preparations.

  8. Finally, distrust the products that claim to improve your defenses. 

    In the food industry there are a multitude of food products that claim to have health properties using in their labeling nutritional and health claims of the type: “this product improves your defenses”, “helps in the regulation of the immune system”, “helps to reinforce the intestinal barrier “,” Helps the body to defend itself “,” Helps protect the organism “or” Helps the body cope with certain daily external aggressions “, among others. 
    Many of these products are antioxidant or dairy juices that are enriched with certain minerals (such as copper, iron, selenium, zinc) or vitamins (A, B6, B12, folic acid, C and D) that participate in the functioning of the immune system and take advantage of the legal vacuum on nutrition labeling. If these products contain a minimum dose of 15% of your Recommended Daily Intake, they can be put containing or enriched with said vitamins and / or minerals.
    It is important to clarify that “participates in the functioning of the immune system” is not synonymous with “improves the immune system.” Therefore, the product may include this statement in its labeling even though there is no concrete evidence that the product itself improves the immune system.
    However, there is scientific evidence that suggests that several probiotic strains and the oligophrose prebiotic are useful for improving the immune response. But these substances are found naturally in vegetables and tubers, so they are essential to enjoy a good intestinal flora, essential for our defenses.

The subjective mirror: What is the body image?

Body image is a complex construct that consists, fundamentally, of three dimensions: perceptive ,cognitive-affective and behavioral . A basic definition of the body image could equate to the mental image or internal photograph of our own body, both its general appearance and each of its parts, that people have in our minds. However, this simile includes only the first of the dimensions of the construct listed a moment ago: that is, the perceptive. The body image is much more than the mental photography itself that we harbor in our consciousness : also the thoughts and emotions that this image arouses, and which are often difficult to dissociate from it, are part of the body image. The behaviors derived from these cognitions and affects make up the last component. All these cognitive-behavioral phenomena in relation to consciousness and the experience of one’s own body can be, globally speaking, positive or negative for the person; they will rarely be truly neutral, especially in a culture such as ours, which gives supreme importance to the image and the body. Body perception can lead to feelings of anxiety, pride, sadness, satisfaction, etc. , and the cognitive-affective fact can lead to adaptive or maladaptive behaviors, beneficial or harmful to the individual. In this sense, for some authors, body image is the way one perceives, imagines, feels and acts with respect to their own body. In other words, we could say that it is the relationship that a person has with his body.

In neurological terms, the body image can be defined as the representation of the different parts of the body that are housed in the somatosensory and motor areas of our cerebral cortex. The representation of each of the body parts in the cortex is not proportional to the size of the body segment in question, but there are important variations depending on, for example, sensitivity. The area of ​​the somatosensory cortex dedicated to the lips or the clitoris, for example, is much larger than the area dedicated to the back.Also the degree of development or the functionality of a certain part of the body in a certain person can condition variations, such as the muscles of the lower extremities in soccer players or the fingers of the hands in professional pianists.

The body image is not something static, stable or much less inherent in the person. Current psychological studies estimate that body image begins to form at an early age , and does so in different ways depending on gender, ethnicity, sexuality and the degree of (dis) ability, among other variables. By the age of two years, most children are able to recognize their own image in a mirror, which can be considered that there is already, by then, a first approach to one’s own body image. However, the body image includes the mental representation of specific parts of the body whose visualization does not necessarily require a reflective surface, such as the distal parts of the extremities or the abdomen. Body image is a fluid and dynamic construct that changes throughout the evolutionary development of people, mainly during childhood, adolescence and early youth , coinciding with: a) The period of major objective changes in somatic parameters (growth, puberty, etc.), which favors greater cognitive attention in the body, and b) Psychoevolutive stages of basic self and personality formation, moments in which the effects of external influences are maximum (being sad examples of this the devastating consequences of oppressive discourses of aesthetic violence on preadolescent and adolescent girls in terms of the development of eating disorders, for example).

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However, the body image of a person can vary throughout his life, either spontaneously in response to evolutionary cognitive-affective changes or as a response to more or less specific external interventions. Examples of external interventions potentially modifying the body image may be the non-formal interventions of the media promoting body-shaming [shame of the body], in its connivance with the aesthetic order dictated by the big lobbies of the control industry body (diet, exercise, fashion, beauty remedies, etc.).However, it can also be preventive and psychotherapeutic interventions designed to improve body image and build healthier relationships with one’s body. Psychology has demonstrated the effectiveness of certain cognitive-behavioral interventions for the positive modification of body image , which has also been maintained in the long term. In addition, but body image not only changes throughout life, but often experience variations within short time scales, sometimes even ultradiana (several times in a single day). People often report feeling thinner or lighter after a few hours of fasting, such as in the morning when getting up; on the contrary, the fact of eating more than usual, of not exercising if one is used to it, or comparing it with social models (real or presented and purified by the media, according to Latour’s translation and purification concepts [1] ) has shown power to modify the body image in the short term.

The importance of the concept of body image lies in its great relevance in self-esteem and in the genesis of problematic, very disabling and generating great suffering, of the relationship with the body and with food. This does not only include disorders of eating behavior, such as anorexia or bulimia nervosa, or other nosological entities such as body dysmorphic disorder, but a much broader and more prevalent range of psychological problems that cause great discomfort in the population and that have in common feelings of displeasure towards the own body and alterations in the emotional relation with the food and with the own body.

In this sense, the behavioral component has great relevance because it constitutes the visible part of the body image, and also because these behaviors are what often maintain the (in) body satisfaction. It is what in psychology is called the theory of self-fulfilling prophecy. We will understand it right away with an example. If a person thinks that his body is horrible and therefore avoids the social situations in which someone can repair him, he will significantly restrict the number of potential occasions in which he could make contact with other people who express an alternative judgment about his body. , and therefore the probabilities of confrontation of your initial hypothesis will decrease. Let’s say the case of a complexed girl because her body has a population size and morphology normal (say, at the 60th percentile of the normality curve [2] ), and not exceptionally reduced, as some fashions dictate. For this reason, she usually dresses in the least striking way possible (even when she likes colors a lot) so that her body goes unnoticed, almost always rejects invitations to leave – much more if they come from the sex that attracts her – because when she is in the company of other people, they feel that they observe and judge their body negatively, and avoid any sexual contact at all costs. Let’s see what consequences these behaviors can have. By not wearing the colorful dresses she would like, she restricts the possibility of other people making her notice that she feels good , and she continues to think – by default – that she feels bad. By not going out with friends, she can reinforce her cognitive interpretation that she is rejected and feels alone because of her physical appearance, when in reality she has not even given other people the opportunity to meet her. By rejecting sexual contact, it reinforces negative conceptions about your body, such as why it is not sexually attractive , that it is not suitable for sexual pleasure or that it can not be a source of pleasure for another person. Access to the full sexual potential of his body, which is probably among the most important bodily functionalities for selfdevelopment, and self-censorship his own right to pleasure is restricted. The paradox is that, to his own eyes and society, this person will be confirming some of the stereotypes that weigh on women not thin : they are bitter, they do not have good aesthetic taste for clothing and accessories, which are not good or many friends, who are not sexually attractive and who often do not find a partner. The ideological system is guardian of itself.

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The importance of body image in the global self-assessment is called body image investment[inversion of / in body image]; In studies carried out with a healthy population, it has been found that between a quarter and a third of personal self-esteem corresponds to body image . With respect to eating disorders and dysmorphic disorder, for a long time it was considered that the perceptive distortion that exists in these patients (that is, the inability to perceive the dimensions of the body correctly, usually overestimating its actual measurements) it was the main component and therefore it should be the cornerstone of psychotherapy. Currently it is known that body dissatisfaction is a much more important variable , and preventive or therapeutic interventions that are based on the modification of the body image and its affective component (dissatisfaction) have been shown to be effective in solving these problems, both by classical approaches as in some innovative ones in the form of technology, ecological intervention or dramaturgy.

These findings have supported the need to also consider situations not strictly defined in psychopathology manuals, but causing great discomfort and very prevalent in the population, as psychological problems that can be addressed psychologically and socially. This is what is known under the umbrella term of problems related to weight and food , or problems related to body image . This way of proceeding is in line with those of us who believe that dimensional systems, based on normality spectra and their extremes, are more useful than categorial systems, based on definitions of rigid pathological categories based on the enumeration of criteria, to study normality and psychological and biomedical pathology.Problems related to body image, in a broad sense, are also tax prevention, since they can be a gateway to disorders such as anorexia, bulimia or dysmorphic disorder.

Many people think that it is possible or even easy to modify the body weight or silhouette through dietary, sports, aesthetic interventions, etc. Such is the power of advertising and the mass media, that these beliefs are maintained despite the direct, daily and tangible experience, available to virtually any citizen – whether in their own flesh or from someone they know or a friend – who evidence that in the vast majority of cases, diets, exercise plans, creams, etc. Well they do not work, they do not have a lasting effect, they can sometimes even be harmful in the long term.Metabolic studies, however, have shown that approximately eighty percent of the factors that control weight (as well as height or other anthropometric parameters) are genetic, with which the real possibilities of printing large changes on the body are scarce. It is no surprise that this is so, since weight maintenance is based on highly sophisticated metabolic pathways that have evolved to ensure weight homeostasis under changing environmental conditions, especially in adverse or famine conditions.

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The objective difficulties to modify the body, which are often avoided while exaggerating the potential of diets, gyms, liposuction and creams, are a key element in the corporate framework of the beauty and fashion business. The engine of a business that sometimes seems perpetual is based on creating a perennial dissatisfaction, so that endless frustration maintains the behavior of search and consumption of solutions that manage to make up the supposed defects of the body. In line with this, interventions to improve body image that are based on modifying the body have not shown any efficacy in controlled studies.In contrast, interventions aimed at modifying the psychological components of body image (perceptual, cognitive-emotional, and behavioral) are, to date, the only ones that have shown promising and lasting results. Changing body image, therefore, does not imply changing the body, but normalizing and sanitizing the relationship with it, which is a source of empowerment in the sociopolitical plane.

[1] Bruno Latour uses the concepts of translation[translation] and purification [purification] in his work on the construction of modernity, in the form of true facts , through cultural heritage. Although his work is beyond the scope of this article, I refer the readers to the consultation (Latour, 1993). For her part, the Swedish researcher and former professor at the Linköpings Universitet, Wera Grahn, has elaborated interesting intersectional interpretations based on Latour’s work, in which she discusses the systems of sex / gender, ethnicity, (dis) ability, sexuality and ageism , among others. Some of them can be consulted in English (Grahn, 2011).

[2] The normality curve or Gaussian bell, by the German mathematician Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855), expresses on the abscissa axis the quantitative variable that is to be considered in increasing order (for example, the weight, the size, or the intelligence quotient), and in the orderly ones the proportion of individuals that present the characteristic in a certain measure in the population. Most of the variables follow a normal distribution, with low proportions of the population located in the left and right extremes (people with very low or very high values ​​in the magnitude considered) and a large majority of the population located in the central area. (people who present intermediate, moderate values, in the considered magnitude). Most people have a medium size and intelligence: a population minority has an exceptionally low or high size, or is exceptionally little or very intelligent.

Note: This article is based on the chapter recently published and referenced as: Tasa-Vinyals, E. (2017). The subjective mirror: What is body image ?. In: Raich, RM [Ed.]. The tyranny of the body. Why do not I look like I am? . Barcelona: Siglantana. It can be purchased here .

The history of the tomb of Sher Shah Suri – Sher Shah Suri Tomb

Sher Shah Suri Tomb

There were such good people in history who made valuable contributions to the advancement of society. In such people there is also a monarch like Sher Shah Suri. A huge tomb in the memory of Sasaram in Rohtas district in Bihar has been made.

This tomb is also special because it is bigger than the Taj Mahal and is also high. This type of tomb is not visible anywhere in India. The complete information about Sher Shah Suri Tomb is given to this same Tomb of Sher Shah Suri .

Sher Shah Suri Tomb

The history of the tomb of Sher Shah Suri – Sher Shah Suri Tomb
Like we told you that the tomb of Sher Shah Suri – Sher Shah Suri Tomb is present in Sasaram of Rohtas district in Bihar .

Sher Shah Suri himself had begun to build his own tomb, and to complete the mausoleum, his boys Islam Shah had completed three months after the death of Sher Shah.

Sher Shah Suri died in 1545. The construction of the tomb of Sher Shah Suri was entrusted to Alawal Khan.

Sher Shah Suri Tomb Architecture – Sher Shah Suri Tomb Architecture
The tomb of Suri was made from very beautiful sandstone stones. This mausoleum is situated in the middle of the lake. This three-storeyed grave is 46 meters high and it is also 13 feet high from Agra’s Taj Mahal .

There is a staircase made of four stones and stones of this tomb which takes the work of carrying it inside the lake.

A high wall is constructed around the veranda which is in the upper part of this tomb. The four corners of this tomb have four sides with eight sides, and there is a Vadasa door on the east side of this tomb which can be reached from this tomb.

A paved road was also built in 1881 to reach this tomb. The four and eight sides of this tomb are made of clutches and all four open spaces are visible. There are 24 small holes all around the open space.

The tomb of this Sher Shah Suri is also named after the largest tombs in India. In the inner part of the tomb, a beautiful mesh work has been done on the stones, due to which the rays of wind and sun can come from these stones.

The arches of the tomb are written from the Quran in very beautiful letters on the arch, and on the walls and on all the walls have been carved in beautiful flowers. But now all the work done in carving is hard to see.

The tomb is given red, blue, golden and white in the outer part. But in today’s time, none of this color is easily visible.

There are a total of 25 people’s tomb in this place, in which there is Tomb of Hasan Khan Suri. There is a grave of a total of 24 people all around the tomb of Sher Shah Suri. The tomb is half a kilometer away, the tomb of Sher Shah Suri’s son is the mausoleum of Islam Shah but it has not been completely built. The tomb of Alawal Khan, who built this tomb, is also built on this place.

Location of Sher Shah Suri Tomb – Sher Shah Suri Tomb Location
Sasaram is an important place in Rohtas district, which is located 150 km away from Patna in the southwest direction.

Varanasi is located at a distance of 135 km west of this direction. This place is on the way to New Delhi-Kolkata, as well as all the cities of North India are connected to this place. Due to being on National Highway 19, there is considerable traffic on this path.

Many people come every day to see the wonderful tomb of Sher Shah Suri. All facilities are available for coming to Yahapur and there is also a facility to reach from the Yahapur Railway. For those who come to Varanasi, it becomes very easy to see this tomb because Varanasi is very close to here.

Top Engineering College UP – Top Engineering Colleges in UP

Top Engineering Colleges in UP

Talking about the past decade in the field of education, the UP has improved its level. In the case of higher education, it is far ahead. There are many colleges in UP that are famous throughout the country and students die for them. These are Top Engineering Colleges of UP – Top Engineering Colleges in UP –

Top Engineering College UP – Top Engineering Colleges in UP
Top Engineering Colleges In UP
Top Engineering Colleges In UP
HBTI, Kanpur – Harcourt Butler Technical University
Establishment – 1921
Faculty – 348 acres
Faculty – 79
Located in the Kanpur city of UP, this college is always making the first choice of students. Students from this college are working today not in India but in the big companies of the world. This college is of IIT level. NAAC has placed it in AAAA + grade. The mechanical engineering is very famous here.

AMU, Aligarh – Aligarh Muslim University
Establishment – 1935
Campus – 113 acres
Faculty – 118
Aligarh Muslim University always remains in the discussion. You can call it one of the oldest institutions in India. NAAC has placed it in AAAA + grade. The average placement here is about Rs 4 lakh annually. This college prepares itself for admission, which is in the name of AMUEEE. If you get an opportunity to go to this college then you must definitely go.

Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Agra – Dayalbagh Educational Institute
Establishment – 1981
Faculty – 594
NAAC Grade – AAA +
This University, located in Agra city, has its own identity. Here you can get admission in engineering through JEE MAIN. Speaking of average placement, approximately 2.50 lakhs annually. It is also named in the best colleges of UP.

Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad – Ajay Kumar Garg Engineering College, Ghaziabad
Establishment – 1998
Campus – 40 acres
Faculty – 245
This is a private engineering college. NAAC has placed it in AAA + grade. To get admission here, you have to give a JEE MAIN or UPSEE exam. If you talk about the average package then at least three lakh rupees are there. However, girls out of here say that there is no exemption for girls here. The rest of these colleges are good where you can learn a lot.

Jaypee University, Noida – Jaypee University
Establishment – 2001
Campus – 39 acres
Faculty – 323
This is a private university. Since the JP Factory has gone bankrupt, its standard has been reduced, but at present, there is a good placement here. NAAC has placed it in AAAA grade. Speaking of average placement, here is 3.80 lakh rupees. The culture of this university is very good. You can take admission through JEE MAIN here. Nowadays there is also the facility of admission from Direct and Donation.

Shiv Nadar University, Dadri – Shiv Nadar University, Dadri
Establishment – 2011
Campus – 286 acres
Faculty – 194
It is a private university which is a bit expensive too. Here you can take admission through JEE MAIN. NAAC has given it AAAA grade. Both the placement and its campus in the university are very good. There are gyms, cafeterias, sports areas and so on.

Madan Mohan Malviya University, Gorakhpur – The Madan Mohan Malaviya University, Gorakhpur
Establishment – 2013
Campus – 339 acres
Faculty – 88
It is a government university where there are all courses like B. Tech, M.Tech., BSc, MSc and MBA. Talking about engineering, NAAC has placed it in AAA + grade. Here you can take admission through JEE MAIN. Talk about the average package, then approximately three lakhs annually.

REC, Ambedkar Nagar – Rajkiya Engineering College, Ambedkar Nagar
Establishment- 2010
NAAC Grade – AAA
Ambedkar Nagar, State Engineering College , comes in the best engineering colleges of UP . Students out here give good information about this. You will have to give the UPSEE exam to get admission here. This college is a government and here a lot of funding is given by the government, hence its infrastructure is very good. Activities from time to time in the college are famous in their own right.

Sharda University, Greater Noida – Sharda University, Noida
Establishment – 2009
Campus – 63 Acres
Faculty – 602
You must have seen plenty of advertisements from this university. Its slogan is The Word Is Here It is a private university and is also very expensive. NAAC has given it AAA grade. Here you have to take the JEE MAIN examination to take admission in engineering. Admission can also be done through direct and donation.

The biggest thing here is that there is a lot to learn here. Different activities, startup programs, etc. are here, so that the students get to learn something new. Due to being a private university, it takes some companies to call for placement.

Amity School of Engineering, Noida – Amity School of Engineering, Noida
Establishment – 2003
Campus – 60 acres
Faculty – 27
It is a popular university with campus and lifestyle discussions all over India. NAAC has placed it in AAAA grade. Here the fest is great and through them you get plenty to learn. Here you can take admission through JEE MAIN.

Apart from this, direct admission also happens many times. Although it is more expensive than the rest of the institutions, the facilities here get so much that the money is collected from the students. Placement in Amity also gets cured. The campus is very popular where swimming pool, sports club, gym, cafeteria etc. are all present.

So this is the best engineering college of UP. If you talk about the best, HBTI Kanpur, AMU Aligarh and Dayalbagh College are Agra. If you find it first, then try it, or you can get admission in any of these ten institutes.

These precautions placed on filling income tax returns can not be difficult

Filing ITR

Income Tax Return – The income tax return i.e. the share of their earnings to the government, also with full information. If you are doing a job or business then you will have to fill in the Income Tax Return – Filing ITR . You will also have your advisors who will tell you, but sometimes there are some mistakes that can get you heavier and then the income tax department gives you notice. That’s why some things you should always keep in mind while doing this.

  • Choose the right form

The first thing comes first that we can not choose the right form. You choose the right farm according to your category and after that fill it up. Rules have been made to choose the right farm. If you do not do this then your farm gets rejection and sometimes you have to hear the reprimand.

  • Bank accounts and incorrect income information

It is often seen that we do not mention all our bank accounts which can be huge for us. Many times we open a bank account and we forget them and in this way you mention them or do not open more accounts. Apart from this, telling the truth to your income is the biggest thing.

If you do not give the correct information about how much you earned, how much spent, said donated, donated a wedding, particle counting in the wedding, etc. If you give wrong information, you may be jailed and you will get a fine fines It may also take place.

  • Error in filling information

The biggest mistake we make after choosing the right farm is that we can not fill our information properly, which can be very heavy to us. The return form contains some important information such as PAN number, bank account number, bank’s IFSC code, demat account, employee’s tan number.

When filling these insights, you keep your attention and if everything is right, you may be in trouble. Many times the income tax department also imposes a fine on you and the form you have rejicted is different.

  • Old job information

Suppose that you changed your job in a financial year and then you filled the tax and you did not mention the old job which you just recently changed, you may be in trouble. You have to give this information to you, if you have left the old job and how much money has earned from it, otherwise the department can give you a legal notice that will be difficult for you.

  • Empty House Information

What happens many times when we buy more than one house and after this, when we fill the tax, then only mention the house in which we are living but do not tell about the other. You can make this mistake very expensive.

If you give information about more than one house and if your second house is empty then you should tell how much rent you can get from him. If you did not do this then you have the possibility of taking action.

  • Show interest advantage

We make the biggest mistake that we do not show the benefits of interest when filling the tax, and in such a situation, our problem starts increasing. Interest received from deposited money in the fixed deposit, interest received from the money kept in the bank, giving the details of the interest received from the post office money fully and accurately, so that you will not get the problem.

If you do not do this and the department gets caught, then you have to deposit that tax with interest later.

  • Waiting for the last date

Depending on our advertisements, the department tells us that you should submit your return by this date, but we feel that there is a lot of problem now and will get done later. If you go to the end of time many times in the round, then there is a lot of crowd or do it online, then the server does not run, then your time goes out and you become difficult and the department takes you captive. That’s why it is better to take care of this and get them deposited in time.

History of Taj Mahal and interesting facts. The Taj Mahal History in English

Ishq is a worshiper, then the Taj Mahal is a picturesque picture of that temple, seeing the love of this Ajimshana building of love, people still trust in love, because in this love there is dedication, sacrifice, happiness and everything that gives Ishq the right place.

It is the world’s pride that is considered as an example of love, pride of India. This wonderful monument was built with white marble in the memory of Shahjahan’s Begum Mumtaz. Every human in the world wishes to see the Taj Mahal today because it is called the temple of love.Located on the bank of river Yamuna, this building is an unforgettable place.

In 1631, the empire of Shah Jahan waved his crown of victory everywhere. At that time all his sons in Shahjahan were his beloved beloved Begum Mumtaz Mahal . But the Persian Begum Mumtaz Mahal died when giving birth to his fourteenth child, the name of his fourteenth child was Gauhar Begum. Taj Mahal was constructed in the memory of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (from reign 1628 to 1658) in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, the construction work of the Taj Mahal began in 1632.

Shah Jahan wanted the world to remember Mumtaz and his love story, that is why he wanted to make some historical heritage in his memory. In which Taj Mahal was built.

Tajmahal is located in the Agra city of India, situated on the banks of river Yamuna and the World Heritage Tomb. Tajmahal also includes the tomb and mahanghar, as well as both its gardens and gardens.

The construction of the Taj Mahal was completed in about 1643 but still to enhance its beauty and work up to 10 years. The construction of the Taj Mahal was completed in about 1653 and at that time there was an expenditure of about 32 million rupees for the construction of it, according to the construction information of the Taj Mahal 25000+ artisans did. Ustad Ahmad Lahauri is often regarded as its chief architect.

In 1983, the Taj Mahal became the UNESCO World Heritage Site. Along with this, it was described as one of the finest human works, receiving universal acclaim for World Heritage.The Taj Mahal was declared as a gem of Islamic art of India. Rabindranath Tagore in his article, “The tear-dropping on the watch of time”, was mentioned in the Mughal period, Bahot Si Vastuklao, and placed great works of Indian history in front of the world.

Each year, the Taj Mahal comes to see about 9 to 10 million people. In 2007, the Taj Mahal was also included in the world’s 7 Wonders list.

Architecture and Texture:

The Taj Mahal was constructed in view of Persian and ancient Mughal traditions. Most of the inspiration they got from Mughalaklin other buildings such as Gur-i-Amir, Humayun’s Tomb, Ishtid-ud-Dulah Tomb, and Jama Masjid. In the ancient Mughal period, the buildings were often constructed from Lal Balua stones but Shahjahan decided to build the Taj Mahal with a white marble. From this the beauty of the Taj Mahal has got four moons.

Begum Mumtaz Mahal Tomb –

Mumtaz Mahal grave is kept in the middle of the Taj Mahal. Begum Mumtaz Mahal Tomb is made of large and white marble, its tomb has been very well-decorated. According to the Muslim tradition, the detailed design of the grave is mind. Therefore, the body of Shahjahan and Mumtaz is buried in its relatively comparatively ordinary, real tombs, whose face is on the side and Mecca.

Mumtaz Mahal’s grave is located in the inner chamber. The base of his grave is approximately 55 meters. The base of his grave and the Shringa Darshan form on top are both rooted with precious stones and gems.Mumtaz’s calligraphy on this is recognition and appreciation. Shahjahan’s grave is south of Mumtaz’s grave.

There is also a well-known story behind the Taj Mahal, according to which the water stove on the first rain of monsoon falls on their tomb. As Rabindranath Tagore ‘s motto is inspired by the description of this tomb, “A teardrop pearl … on time cheeks” Such stories are popular in the history of Taj Mahal.

The picture of the supernatural beauty created by white stone on the banks of Yamuna River “Taj Mahal” has made its identity not only in India but also in the whole world. Thousands of people come here from far away to see this sign of love. After admiring the beauty of the Taj Mahal in the Dudhia Chandni, how many cats do you think, it seems all faint.

It is said that the craftsmen who built the Taj Mahal, Shah Jahan had cut the hands of those artisans after the construction. Many of these types of claims are done in history with the Taj Mahal. The construction of this building has always been a subject of praise and pride. It has crossed the boundaries of religion, culture and geography and has made a personal and emotional response from the hearts of the people. Even today, people consider the Taj Mahal as a sign of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz’s love affair. Today, one of the most beautiful buildings in the world is the Taj Mahal.

Taj Mahal of Agra is considered a symbol of India’s beauty and love.

Taj Mahal Information And Facts – Some interesting points of Taj Mahal

1. This charming building was made up of more than 25000 people, including laborers, painters, artists and many artists.

2. Approximately 1500 hats were used to move the goods when making the Taj Mahal.

3. According to historians, Shah Jahan had planned to build another Taj Mahal from Black Streets on the other side of the river, due to war with his son Aurangzeb , his plan could not be fulfilled.

4. Taj Mahal was built in memory of Shahjahan’s third and the most beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal and it took almost 18 years to build it.

5. It is said that Mumtaz’s death had a great effect on Shah Jahan, after his death, the condition of Shah Jahan had also been very bad. It is said that Shah Jahan was unable to forget Mumtaz till his death.

6. The shade of the towers of the Taj Mahal creates a mirror-like image. People also consider it a miracle, but many architectures have not been able to solve this puzzle.

7. Tajmahal is surrounded by the Mahamohan Garden and the historic buildings, which include the Masjid and the Guest House, around 17 hectares of land is spread over the Taj Mahal.

8. The total height of the Taj Mahal is around 73 m.

9. The Taj Mahal is seen in different colors in different times in the day; in the morning it is light pink and in the evening the dandelike white and in the night it appears light golden.Changing the colors of the logo means changing the mood (temperament) of women.

10. On the walls of Taj Mahal there were precious gems previously, but in the 1857 revolution, the British had suffered a lot.

Brief introduction of Samrat Chandragupta Maurya

Samrat Chandragupta was great. They are called Chandragupta Great. Chandragupta, who had been in Alexander’s time, left Alexander’s commander Seleucas twice as hostage. Emperor Chandragupta Maurya’s master was Chanakya. Chandragupta had handed his throne to his son Bindusara. In the time of Bindusara, Chanakya was his prime minister. Bindusar is said to be the ‘father of the great father and father of the great son’, because he was the son of Chandragupta Maurya and father of emperor Ashok the Great.

Family introduction of Chandragupta Maurya:
Information about the early life of Chandragupta the great we get from Jain and Buddhist texts. Chandragupta is said to be the son of Narayan by not saying ‘Nandaputra’ in Vishakhdutt’s play ‘Protarakshas’. It is also said that Bhal of Chandragupta Mura was the son of a woman. This lady was a dancer in the state of Dhananand, which was ordered to leave the state from the kinghood and she was living her days as a woman living in a forest.
It is said that Chandragupta Maurya was born in 340 B.C. in the total of Maurya or Maurya dynasty. The name of the mother of Chandra Gupta Maurya was Mura. Others believe that they belong to the Moray tribe of Peacock Tommers. It is said that they were poor from birth, and they had an officer in the army of his sons Nande, who had been killed by some reason. His father had died before he was born. When Chandragupta was 10, his mother Murra too died and since then he was raised by Acharya Chanakya.

Chandragupta had three marriages. His first wife’s name was Durdhara. Bindseer was born from Dudhara. The second wife was the daughter of Princess Cornelia Helena or Helen, who was the daughter of Selukus. Helena is the son of Justin. It is said that he had a third wife named Nam Chandra Nandini.

United India
With the help of Chanakya and Poras, Chandragupta Maurya sat on the throne of Magadha and Chandragupta liberated Punjab from the right of the Greeks. Chandragupta Maurya took over the throne of Magadha in the short life of 25 years after defeating the Nandavanshi ruler, Dhanand. Chandragupta’s name is found in the oldest records of Rudradaman’s Junagadh record.

Chandragupta Maurya’s governance was very systematic. Introduction to the Greek Ambassador Megasthenes and the ‘Economics of Kautilya’. India was a powerful nation during the time of Chandragupta Maurya. His district was the most powerful in India divided into 18 Mahajanapadas. Before Chandragupta, Magadha was ruled by the cruel monastery, which was a descendant of Bimbisar and Ajatashatru.
Chandragupta-Dhanand war: The war that took place from Dhananand of Chandragupta Maurya (322 to 298 BC), the disciple of Chanakya, changed the history of the country. One of the 18 districts of ancient India was Mahajanapad – Magadha. The king of Magadha was Dhananand. Everyone knows about this war. Chandragupta uprooted his rule and established the Maurya dynasty.

Chandragupta Maurya Ja Jain religion had much inclination towards In his last time, he handed over the palace to his son Binduset and after receiving initiation from Jainanarya Bhadrabhu, accompanied him to Shravanabelagola (near Mysore). And by the Kaya Kishash on Chandragiri hill, he sacrificed his life in 297 BC.

Do these special 10 yoga exercises in a full-fledged life, all diseases like cancer will survive

Due to the adventurous lifestyle, man has lost the proximity of nature and self. Because of this, many kinds of diseases and grief are born in life. We do not even have the time to do yoga regularly or to take any other steps to stay healthy. By thinking of this, we have brought for you Yoga techniques, rules and asanas, through which you can make body and mind healthier by making quick use of yoga.
1. Symium- 25 hours out of 24 hours you will live in control of your mind. Repeat this situation with restraint because restraint is the tenacity. In a typical way, make a resolve, persist, or persistence. If you do addiction and do not have restraint, then you will not be able to leave it till death. Likewise, there is a habit of annoying or speaking too much. This means that addiction and anger cause disease in the body.
You can start the restraint with small resolutions. Resolve that from today I will do that, whatever I want. I want to be happy, stay healthy and be most qualified.Restraint can also be facilitated by the fast. In the case of diet, sleep-taking and silence and excessive speaking, health and salvation takes place only through patience.If there is no restraint, then Yama, Rama, Asana etc. are all proved futile.
2. Ishwar Prachandna – According to yoga, God Himself means that there is no need to remain strong or monotheistic towards any single god or god or to be a monotheist.Due to devoting one’s mind to one’s life by devoting to it, the mind becomes resolute, perceptive, and infinite. It is extremely important for the success of life. The person who believes in the planetary constellations, innumerable goddesses, tantra-mantras and various superstitions, his whole life passes in delusion, disorientation and contradictions. This leads to decisionlessness. You may be wondering if this is necessary because it is very important because this will strengthen your mind. A strong mind will be able to handle every kind of situation.
3-Organ-operation is also called microscopic exercise. It is done before the onset of rugs. This makes the body ready to be asana.Under subtle exercises, there is a better working of all the eye, neck, shoulder, heel and leg, knee, buttocks, etc., which we can do in a short time. There is no extra time required for this. You can learn from any yoga teacher and take it anywhere in the house or office.
4. Pranayama- while conducting the organ, if you also add an inverse-inverse pranayam in it, it will in a way purify your inner organs and subtle nerves.Whenever you get a chance, do pranayama better learning.
5. Dhyan – Even now about meditation, all are beginning to know. Meditation serves to restore our energy again, so you can do just five minutes of meditation anywhere. Especially when sleeping and getting up, it can be done on any bed in any dry house.
6. Yoga Massage and Bath- Yoga Massage and many bathing steps are there. At least once in three months, once a yoga massage and bathing, the body is rejuvenated and it remains young. It is able to remove the person’s fatigue, anxiety, disease etc. The person wants to be light and refreshed by getting stressed and polluting atmosphere, so this trend has increased in Yoga Resorts nowadays, but you can do it even at home.
7. Yoga posture- Yoga posture is of two types. A Harmony and Second Asana Mudra You can learn from them and keep them from time to time. Ten handicrafts are prominent – 1. Gana mudra, 2. Parthiv mudra, 3. Varan mudra, 4. Yauya mudra, 5. Numbh mudra, 6.Surya mudra, 7. Pran mudra, 8.than mudra, 9.Apan currency, 10.Aapan Air Money
8. Yoga bond- Yantro describes the many bonds in yoga. But mainly, 5 bonds- 1. Mulk, 2. Vadnanda, 3. Jalandhar bond, 4. Bandit and 5. If you learn well once, then you will come to work all the time. You will be surprised by knowing the benefits of bondage.
9.Asan- If you want, you have done only the sun salutation in the posture of yoga. Whenever the time comes in the morning or evening. You make this greeting at least five times. Five times will take only five minutes.
10. Yoga actions- There are many verbs in yoga. It is also a little difficult to do. But once you take the time out and learn from them which you find it easy to learn, life will work anytime. The major verbs are 13- 1. Neeti- Sutra Neti, Ghat Neti, 2. Dhauti- Vaman Dhothi, Garh Dauoti, Punt Dhauti, 3. Jijakarni, 4. Basati- Water Basi, 5. Kunjar, 6. Nayauli, 7. Contribution , 8. Kumbhalbhati, 9. Bhawani, 10. Ganesh Kriya, 11. Badhi, 12. Long-term cleansing and 13. Shakhkho Vriklion.
Finally, if you start some of the above 10 measures, this remedy has the potential to change your life, provided you make them honestly regular.

10 Mantra to Become a Successful Investor

To become a long-term successful investor in the market, we are here to tell you ten common threads. With the help of these sources, you will not only be able to understand the market, but also prove yourself true to every aspect of the investment.

1. Like losers, walk like wallets and winners!Time has repeatedly told that investors have made profit by selling their invested stocks repeatedly. But if they hold their stock for a long time then it is likely to fall in stock prices.But the investor does not know what to do with the weak stocks and because of this the investor may be in trouble.

The best way is to hold high quality stocks, while poorly performing stocks should be sold, but it is very difficult to adopt this method in an experimental manner. The information below might help you:

Walk like a winner – Peter Lynch was famous for talking about tenbags (such an investment that increases ten times in value). The principle behind their success was that there should be fewer stocks in the portfolio which would give big returns.
If the stock gets stacked several times and if you own a policy to sell it, then remember it should be three times as little as you can not become a winner. There is no one in the history of investment who does not agree with the principle of selling after three times his wealth.

If a stock is performing well due to its strict personal rules, then do not underestimate it. If you do not have a good understanding of your investment potential, then you can limit your personal rules to the end.

At the same time, you should try to keep your mental balance at a level of profit for the sake of profit (if the stock suddenly falls below a very bad technical level and at the lower level for some time So some people start thinking about it).

It should also be remembered that after a brief spurt, difficulties become difficult to create 1 or 2 percent of the shares, and the rest fall down (some go even below the purchase price).Therefore adequate study and research is important before investing. Generally, some stocks should be invested in one year and every effort should be avoided.

Selling like Luzor: – There is no guarantee that a stock will bounce back after a long fall. When it is important that good shares are not considered low, it is also important that you remain realistic towards your investment, who are doing poorly.

Accepting your defeat is very difficult because it is a sign of your fault. But when you realize that the stock is not able to perform according to your expectations, it becomes important that you become honest. Do not be afraid of breaking your key and the damage will increase much better before you exit.

In both cases, the decisions regarding companies with merit prepared on the basis of their research should be decided. In each situation, you have to decide whether the present value justifies the potential potential of the future. Remember that you do not let your fear overpower the returns and increase your loss.

2. Do not fall behind the hot tip: Even if your brother, relative, neighbor and even your broker give a tip, you should not do it as a law.When you make an investment, it becomes important that you know the concrete reason for doing this, before you invest your hard-earned money, you should research and analyze a company yourself.

Investing by trusting the smallest information received by someone is dangerous, it is a form of yoga in some way. Of course these tips prove to be better if fate is good, but sometimes these tips are very painful. But these tips will not make you a sensible investor in success in the long run.

3. Do not be afraid of small difficulties:Being a long-term investor, you should not be terrorized when your shares go through a period of high volatility for short-term. When you keep an eye on your investment activities, you should always look at a big picture.Remember that in the short-term indispensable instability, you will have confidence in the quality of your investment compared to panic.Simultaneously, do not give much importance to the difference of percentage, using a limit against market order can save you from this problem.
The change, not just day-to-day but minute-by-minute, allows active traders to make profits.But long-term investors receive this benefit from different market movements-this happens in many years- so keep educating yourself.

4. Do not give excessive force to P / E ratio:Investors often value very much value earning ratio (P / E ratio). Because it is the only important tool among many options. With the help of this ratio alone, the decision to buy and sell shares can be dangerous and decisions based on this are not always right. It should be interpreted in terms of P / E ratio and its use should be used in conjunction with other analytical process. Therefore, the low P / E ratio does not mean that the stock is weak and neither does the higher P / E ratio mean that the company is too overvalued.

5. Do not ask cheap stocks: There is a general misconception that there is less loss in buying cheap stock. But when you buy a stock in five rupees and it falls to zero, on the contrary if you buy a stock for Rs 75 and if you do so, then you lose your initial investment by 100 percent. A poor A5 company may be more risky than a poor 75 company. In fact, the company of cheap stock is more likely to be more risky than a company with higher share value tied in more rules.

6. Create and hold on a strategy: Different people use different ways to buy shares and meet their investment goals. There are many ways to be successful and no strategy is better than anyone else. However, if you invent some method, then remain firm on it. Continuously changing strategies makes you an effective market timer, and most investors must definitely avoid this.

7. Focus on the future: The most difficult part of investing is that we focus on the recent incidents and information while making decisions. It is a matter of taking care that we use the old data to predict the future events, what will happen in the future, it matters a lot to us.

8. Think long-term perspective: Large short-term benefits can attract investors who are new to the market. But any investor should choose long-term investment and a strategy like chaat matchmaking should be removed from the brain. It does not mean that profit can not be earned through active trading in short-term.But here we have already explained that investment and trading are both different ways to earn profit from the market. There are different risks in trading, in which the investor does not need any experience to buy and hold stock. But there are some special skills required for active trading.

It is not necessary that one’s investment style is better than the other. Both have their side-opposition. In the absence of appropriate time, financial resources, education and desire, this active trading can be wrong for anyone. So do not allow yourself to be confused. First, decide whether you want to become a trader or an investor and then the timing of the investment.First decide first, then make appropriate decisions.

9. Work with open mind: Many big companies have domestic names but there are not many good domestic names of investment.Thousands of small companies have the potential to become big blue chip companies in the future. Here is no suggestion that you should include small cap stocks in your entire portfolio. Rather understand that there are many good companies here that are outside the Sensex or Nifty, thus less known companies are ignored and in the same way you can ignore some big profit provider companies.

10. Do not worry about taxes : Worried about tax, but do not worry about it. Keeping taxes at the top is a dangerous strategy, it can cause investors to be poor and misleading. Yes, tax implication is important, but it is a secondary subject of concern. The primary goal in investing is development and money protection. You should always try to reduce the tax you owe and increase the post-tax return but these conditions are very low and when you make investment decisions, keep the tax case at the top. In an attempt to save some tax, you hold the stock (to take advantage of the following tax rate). As a result, your profit gets reduced.